Electrical transformers are known to make humming and buzzing sounds that can be unpleasant and disturbing. The reason for this noise is the magnetostriction process that takes place inside the transformer, in which the magnetic steel sheet changes its size and shape when magnetized. Since magnetostriction is an important process in the operation of a transformer, noise cannot be completely eliminated. But yes, if desired, it can be reduced to a certain extent.
The important thing that we must understand is that magnetostriction is the expansion and contraction of laminated cores. Both toroidal and W-shaped, although in toroidal, of course, these processes are much less, which create noise during magnetization. Thus, the noise of the transformer comes from the core. It is clear that no transformer can operate silently, and the noise level is determined by the design of the transformer itself. Any adjustments made to the design can increase or decrease the noise level. However, the main task of reducing the noise level must be addressed in the design of the transformer.
Mounting the transformer on a solid surface
It is always recommended to install transformers on heavy, dense surfaces such as concrete walls and floors, rather than on plywood surfaces or thin curtain walls, which will only amplify the humming noise, making it unbearable. Typically, the mounting surfaces should be ten times heavier than the transformer being installed.
Avoid installing transformers in corners, corridors and stairwells
When little space is left between the transformer and the adjacent wall, the sound is amplified. It works the same way as the echo of our voice amplifies our own sound. Thus, there must be sufficient free space around the transformer. This is why places such as corners of rooms, corridors and stairwells should be avoided unless we want to increase the acoustic effect of a noisy transformer. Also, placing the transformer under the ceiling is also not a good idea!
The transformer mountings must always be tightly tightened
All bolts and screws in the cover and top of the transformer must always be tightened. Any loose parts will vibrate when the transformer is on. This noise is combined with the annoying noise produced by the transformer.
Use of sound absorbing materials
The use of noise-absorbing materials such as oil barriers or rubber and soft materials can help absorb sound, which reduces noise and prevents it from spreading. This is a way of absorbing sound, but it does not mean that the noise from the transformer will disappear. This will only lower the noise level. But here the issues of effective cooling of the transformer immediately arise, which require a solution at the design stage.
-Maximum noise level of the transformer should be compared with the predicted environment of its location. The transformer must be relocated if its noise level is higher than allowed at that location.
-When installing transformers in places such as office buildings or hotels, it is necessary to plan so that at least a small technical room remains between the transformer and the "areas for people".
-Mounting surface for the transformer should not resonate and increase noise. The mounting base (eg concrete floor) must weigh at least 10 times more than the transformer.
- Angular placement should be avoided as sound will be reflected into the room.
-The product should not be installed on thin walls such as plywood or curtain walls as they amplify sound (speaker effect).
-The manufacturer's installation instructions must be followed to use any vibration suppression devices included in the transformer design.
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